NaPiRE: Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering

NaPiRE constitutes a globally distributed family of surveys on Requirements Engineering. It aims at establishing an open and generalisable set of empirical findings about the status quo as well as practical problems and needs in RE.

The overall goal is to distill empirically sound trends on:

  • status quo and industrial expectations,
  • experienced problems and how those problems manifest themselves in the process, and
  • what the success factors for RE are.

To reach this aim, we conduct the survey in a distributed and bi-yearly replicated manner. NaPiRE is thus comparable to the Chaos Report of the Standish Group with a particular focus on RE. In contrast to the Chaos Report, however, we strictly commit ourselves to follow the principles and values of evidence-based research.

Values and Principles

We, that is all researchers contributing to NaPiRE, commit ourselves to certain values and principles. These are:

  • Openness: Openness begins by cordially inviting researchers and practitioners of any software engineering related community to contribute to NaPiRE and ends by disclosing our results and reports without any restrictions or commercial interest.
  • Transparency: All results obtained from the distributed surveys are committed to the PROMISE repository. This shall allow other researchers for an independent data analysis and interpretation.
  • Anonymity (while closed): The participation in NaPiRE in the form of a survey respondent is possible by invitation only. This serves a transparent result set and response rate. However, no personal data is collected and every data set obtained from the survey will be carefully analysed for information that might be traced back to a specific company to ensure that no personal data will be disclosed to public. That is, we guarantee that no answer set can be related to survey participants.
  • Accuracy and Validity: With accuracy and validity, we refer in particular to the data collection and to the data analysis. Each question in the survey is carefully defined according a jointly defined theory to specifically confirm or refute existing expectations. The data analysis is furthermore performed in joint collaboration by different researchers to maximise the validity of the results.

NaPiRE is a community effort as it results from a collaboration between members of the empirical software engineering research community under the umbrella of the International Software Engineering Research Network (ISERN). It is, however, open for everybody to join in contributing to NaPiRE.

How can I contribute to NaPiRE?

NaPiRE is centrally organised following a coordinated process. Each survey is conducted independently by different (self-organised) teams on a two-year basis via our central infrastructure. After each round, the national teams commit themselves (after they potentially publish their results on their own) to disclose the raw (anonymised) data. At the end of each replication cycle, we synthesise the results obtained from the different countries and publish a joint report on the overall results and synergies between national-specific trends. All the reports will be also published on this website.

Everybody can therefore contribute to NaPiRE, either as a respondent or as an organiser running a national instance of NaPiRE. In case you are interested in contributing as a respondent, please contact the organiser of your respective country. In case you are interested in supporting as an organiser, please contact the general organisers!

How can I benefit from NaPiRE?

As researcher and practitioner as well, you benefit from NaPiRE as it shall:

  1. provide a long-term investigation of current state of RE practices, problems, and potential mitigations.
  2. support a problem-driven RE research where scientific contributions to RE can be put in tune with practically relevant problems.

Those two objectives allow not only researchers to steer and evaluate their own research results, but also practitioners to evaluate their own RE situation against industrial trends.

By contributing as a respondent, you can thereby add your personal views and experiences on RE to our knowledge basis. By contributing as an organiser, you can actively steer the development of NaPiRE covering those facets that lay in your particular research field.


Access the publications of NaPiRE

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The worldwide network of people who make NaPiRE possible

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A sneak peek on the results obtained in the project

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Interested? We are happy to answer your requests!

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  • P. Mafra, M. Kalinowski, D. Mendez Fernandez, M. Felderer, S. Wagner,
    Towards Guidelines for Preventing Critical Requirements Engineering Problems
    In: Proc. of the 42nd EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA '16), IEEE, 2016.
    Limassol, Cyprus. Preprint is available here.
  • D. Mendez Fernandez, S. Wagner, M. Kalinowski, A. Schekelmann, A. Tuzcu, T. Conte, R. Spinola, R. Prikladnicki
    Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering: Comparing Practices in Brazil and Germany
    In: IEEE Software Voice of Evidence, 2015. Open access version is available here
  • M. Kalinowski, R. Oliveira Spinola, T. Conte, R. Prikladnicki, D. Mendez Fernandez, S. Wagner
    Towards Building Knowledge on Causes of Critical Requirements Engineering Problems
    In: Proc. 27th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE), 2015
    Pittsburgh, USA. Preprint is available here.
  • M. Kalinowski, M. Felderer, T. Conte, R. Spinola, R. Prikladnicki, D. Winkler, D. Mendez Fernandez, S. Wagner
    Preventing Incomplete/Hidden Requirements: Reflections on Survey Data from Austria and Brazil
    In: Proc. of the Software Quality Days (SWQD '15), Springer, 2015.
    Vienna, Austria. Preprint is available here.
  • D. Mendez Fernandez, S. Wagner
    Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering: A Design for a Global Family of Surveys and First Results from Germany
    In: Information and Software Technology, Elsevier, 2014
    Extended version of first conference publication. Preprint is available here.
  • D. Mendez Fernandez, S. Wagner
    Naming the Pain in Requirements Engineering: Design of a Global Family of Surveys and First Results from Germany
    In: Proc. of the 17th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE '13), ACM, 2013.
    Porto de Galinhas, Brazil.


General Organisers

  • Daniel Méndez Fernández, Technical University of Munich
  • Stefan Wagner, University of Stuttgart
  • Michael Felderer, University of Innsbruck
  • Marcos Kalinowski, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF)

NaPiRE Argentina

  • Gabriela Robiolo, Universidad Austral

NaPiRE Austria

  • Michael Felderer, University of Innsbruck
  • Dietmar Winkler, Technical University of Vienna, SBA Research gGmbH
  • Stefan Biffl, Technical University of Vienna

NaPiRE Brazil

  • Marcos Kalinowski, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF)
  • Rodrigo Spinola, UNIFACS/Fraunhofer Project Center at UFBA
  • Rafael Prikladnicki, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS)
  • Tayana Conte, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM)

NaPiRE Canada

  • Günther Ruhe, University of Calgary
  • Maleknaz Nayebi, University of Calgary

NaPiRE China

  • Qing Wang, Institute of Software Chinese Academy of Sciences

NaPiRE Cuba

  • Marelis Perez Garcia, Universidad de las Ciencias Informaticas

NaPiRE Ecuador

  • Efrain R. Fonseca C., Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE
  • Cecilia Hinojosa, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE

NaPiRE Estonia

  • Dietmar Pfahl, University of Tartu

NaPiRE Finland

  • Markku Oivo, University of Oulu
  • Tomi Männistö, University of Helsinki
  • Casper Lassenius, Aalto University

NaPiRE Germany

  • Daniel Méndez Fernández, Technical University of Munich
  • Stefan Wagner, University of Stuttgart
  • Kristian Beckers, Technical University of Munich
  • Ahmet Tuzcu, ZEB

NaPiRE Italy

  • Marco Torchiano, Politecnico di Torino

NaPiRE Japan

  • Hiroyuki Nakagawa, Osaka University

NaPiRE Luxembourg

  • Mehrdad Sabetzadeh, University of Luxembourg

NaPiRE Netherlands

  • Maya Daneva, University of Twente
  • Roel Wieringa, University of Twente

NaPiRE New Zealand

  • Matthias Galster, University of Canterbury
  • Kelly Blincoe, University of Auckland

NaPiRE Norway

  • Pekka Abrahamsson, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Sagar Sen, Simula Research Laboratory

NaPiRE Portugal

  • Catarina Gralha, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Miguel Goulão, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • João Araújo, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Ana Moreira, Universidade Nova de Lisboa

NaPiRE Spain

  • Oscar Pastor, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
  • Xavier Franch, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya
  • Albert Tort Pugibet, Sogeti Spain
  • Jose Luis de la Vara, Carlos III University of Madrid

NaPiRE Sweden

  • Marie-Therese Christiansson, Karlstads Universitet
  • André Schekelmann, Hochschule Niederrhein
  • Krzysztof Wnuk, Blekinge Institute of Technolog

NaPiRE Switzerland

  • Martin Glinz, University of Zurich

NaPiRE United Kingdom

  • Desmond Greer, Queen's University Belfast

NaPiRE Uruguay

  • Martin Solari, Unviesidad ORT Uruguay
  • Santiago Matalonga, Unviesidad ORT Uruguay


  • Birgit Penzenstadler, California State University, Long Beach
  • Jeffrey Carver, University of Alabama

Further Contributors in Design and/or Data Analysis

  • Barry Boehm, University of Southern California
  • Manfred Broy, Technische Universität München
  • Giovanni Cantone, University of Rome
  • Marcela Genero, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha
  • Jürgen Münch, University of Helsinki
  • Dave Zubrow, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon

Results: Sneak Peek


Daniel Méndez Fernández

 Technical University of Munich

Stefan Wagner

 University of Stuttgart